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electronic engineering


Environmental Monitoring system in Bangladesh

December 20, 2018

In monitoring the environment system, many sensors and early warning systems are deployed in remote areas all around the world. satellite cameras satellite data transceivers provide the reliable satellite data M2M communications monitoring (machine to machine) needed to collect monitoring information from your remote sites.
Changes in the environment can be caused by either natural catastrophes like floods, typhoons, and volcanic eruptions or the human factor like industrial pollution and urban development. Whatever the cause, such changes may result not only in the loss of life and property in the short term but also environmental degradation in the long term.
To conserve the environment, it is essential that environmental changes such as variations in the conditions, patterns, and dynamics of air, water, and land resources, are effectively monitored. Recent advancement in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has enabled environmental scientists to incorporate spatial data collected via diverse sources for monitoring purposes. In the GIS can be found digitized maps, demographic figures, and multitemporal information about the temperature, humidity, size, boundary, etc. of specific locations. Closely linked with GIS is remote sensing technology under which special data are acquired in the form of images depicting the spatial variation of terrestrial objects in terms of spectral reluctance. Remotely-sensed images range from the conventional aerial photographs taken from airplanes to the more sophisticated multispectral and multi-resolution digital data acquired by satellite sensors.
At present, both GIS data and remotely-sensed images can be stored, managed, processed, and retrieved in an integrated geographic information system (IRIS). But if scientists want to obtain high-level analysis and sophisticated interpretation of these two sets of data together, the IRIS has first to be upgraded and made more `intelligent’.
Conventional remote sensing image processing systems are developed on the basis of statistical pattern recognition and image analysis methodologies. Techniques have been developed to enable the systems to detect changes and classify images, but such techniques are very basic and their results are crude when compared with those of a skilled photo interpreter.

                                             Monitoring system in Bangladesh
A good photo interpreter can efficiently utilize the image characteristics of tone, cooler, shape, size, texture, pattern, shadow, and site, and synthesize them with his/her knowledge of a specific region or discipline to produce detailed and accurate interpretations of environmental changes.
Researchers at CUHK have set out to formalize and automate the manner in which a photo interpreter performs his or her work, and to produce an intelligent image processing system that could provide high-level analyses and interpretation of remotely-sensed data. Environmental monitoring aims to assess the quality of natural resources and determine the effects of human activity on the environment. Common factors to measure our air, water, and soil quality. Air quality is most often measured by assessing relative amounts of chemicals such as CO2 and methane while water and soil can be monitored for harmful chemicals, biodiversity, or presence of harmful microorganisms.
Key to proper environmental monitoring is a well-planned experimental setup that takes into account what particular factors need to be measured, the sample size necessary to obtain meaningful results, what types of results might be expected, an assertion that the experimental actions themselves will not cause more harm than good. All these factors must be considered when purchasing equipment for environmental monitoring purposes.

Remote unattended air pollution systems. Weather stations (rainfall, wind, temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity).Wildfire prescribed burning. Avalanche warning systems (snowpack monitoring systems).Coastal surge and tsunami early warning systems.Ice flows, icebergs, and glaciers.Lightning detection stations.Earthquake monitoring stations.


Best sub-station provider in Bangladesh

December 20, 2018

substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels. A substation may include transformers to change voltage levels between high transmission voltages and lower distribution voltages, or at the interconnection of two different transmission voltages.

Substations may be owned and operated by an electrical utility or may be owned by a large industrial or commercial customer. Generally, substations are unattended, relying upon remote supervision and control.

The word substation comes from the days before the distribution system became a grid. As central generation stations became larger, smaller generating plants were converted to distribution stations, receiving their energy supply from a larger plant instead of using their own generators. The first substations were connected to only one power station, where the generators were housed and were subsidiaries of that power station.inverter-Panel

                                                                 Substation panel board

Substations may be described by their voltage class, their applications within the power system, the method used to insulate most connections, and by the style and materials of the structures used. These categories are not disjointed; for example, to solve a particular problem, a transmission substation may include significant distribution functions. In distributed generation projects such as a wind farm, a collector substation may be required. It resembles a distribution substation although power flow is in the opposite direction, from many wind turbines up into the transmission grid. Usually, for the economy of construction, the collector system operates around 35 kV, and the collector substation steps up voltage to a transmission voltage for the grid. The collector substation can also provide power factor correction if it is needed, metering, and control of the wind farm. In some special cases, a collector substation can also contain an HVDC converter station.

Collector substations also exist where multiple thermal or hydroelectric power plants of comparable output power are in proximity. Examples of such substations are in Germany and Hradec in the Czech Republic, where power is collected from nearby lignite-fired power plants. If no transformers are required for increasing the voltage to transmission level, the substation is a switching station. The electrical substation is an assemblage of electrical components including busbars, switchgear, power transformers, auxiliaries etc. These components are connected in a definite sequence such that a ckt. can be switched off during normal operation by manual command and also automatically during abnormal conditions such as short-cut.

Basically, an electrical substation consists of a number of incoming ckt. and outgoing ckt. connected to a common Bus-bar system. A substation receives electrical power from generating station via incoming transmission lines and delivers elect. power via the outgoing transmission lines. The switchgear assembly comprises one or more busbar assemblies and a number of bays each connecting a circuit to the busbar assembly. Normally the busbars and bays should be mapped individually, see below. However, sometimes the layout of the switchgear is not known, such as when the switchgear is inside a building or when no good aerial imagery is available. In such cases, the switchgear may be mapped as an area. Only map switchgear in this way if it cannot be mapped in more details. If the entire substation is located indoor don’t map the switchgear separately

A power transformer is a static piece of apparatus with two or more windings which, by electromagnetic induction, transforms a system of alternating voltage and current into another system of voltage and current for the purpose of transmitting electrical power.